宽永 通宝

来源:未知 |2020-06-29 17:19:20

宽永通宝

宽永通宝是日本历史上铸量最大、铸期最长、版别最多的一种钱币,同时也是流入我国数量最多的外国钱币之一。它始铸于日本第108代后水尾天皇宽永三年(1626年),从1636年开始大量铸造。当时日本各地的钱炉均有铸造,至明治初年还在使用,前后流通长达240余年,后因德川幕府灭亡而废止。宽永通宝钱在长期的中日贸易及交往中不断流入我国,至今在我国各地均有发现。

KangxiKuan Yong Tong Bao is a kind of coin with the largest amount, longest period and most editions in Japanese history, and also one of the most foreign coins flowing into China. It was first cast in 1626 (the third year of kuanyong, the 108th generation of emperor Shuiwei), and began to be cast in large quantities in 1636. At that time, all kinds of money stoves were cast in Japan. They were still in use until the beginning of Meiji. They circulated for more than 240 years. Later, they were abolished because of the demise of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Kuanyong Tongbao money has been flowing into China in the long-term trade and exchanges between China and Japan, and has been found all over China so far.

   

日本是最早开始仿铸中国方孔圆钱的国家。据一些专家研究,日本在公元708年奈良朝元明天皇和同元年(公元708年,相当于我国唐中宗景龙二年)开始仿效中国唐朝铸币,铸行“和同开珎”方孔圆钱。到19世纪60年代,共铸行方孔圆钱32种,其中的“宽永通宝”是铸行量最大的一种。

Kangxi Japan is the first country to imitate the Chinese square hole round coin. According to some experts, Japan began to follow the example of China's Tang Dynasty in 708, when the emperor and the same year (708, equivalent to the second year of Jinglong, Emperor Zhongzong of the Tang Dynasty) of Nara Dynasty began to cast "hetongkai" square hole round coins. By 1860's, there were 32 kinds of square hole round coins, among which "Kuan Yong Tong Bao" was the largest one.

我国明代施行钞、银、铜钱并行制度,但铜钱的铸行严重不足,在明代的十七帝中,只有九代帝王铸过币(如明宣宗时自宣德年后的几十年间没铸过币)。于是便允许唐、宋旧铜钱入流,这便为民间的私铸钱和流入中国的日本仿制钱的流通提供了条件。

In Ming Dynasty, the parallel system of banknotes, silver and copper coins was implemented, but the casting of copper coins was seriously insufficient. Among the 17 emperors of Ming Dynasty, only nine emperors had ever cast coins (for example, in Xuanzong period of Ming Dynasty, there were no coins in the decades after Xuande). Thus, the old copper money of Tang and Song Dynasties was allowed to flow in, which provided conditions for the private coinage of private money and the circulation of Japanese imitation money flowing into China.

相传是年羹尧熔黄金罗汉所铸,色泽呈金黄色,   这种钱币做工尤为精美,由于有传说掺入金质罗汉的材料而铸。泛金色的原因在于罗汉钱在制造的时候加入了锌元素,所以看上去泛金色,不是里面含金。康熙通宝对于整个清朝钱币的规范化发展有着重大的历史意义,同时还奠定了清朝此后一百八十余年的钱文风格,为收藏家所钟爱。日本的“宽永通宝”钱在中国民间流通了多年,直到清乾隆初年,才被官府知道,怀疑是私铸钱,还另用“年号”,这无异于谋反。于是,乾隆皇帝谕令江、浙、闽各总督、巡抚穷治开炉造卖之人。幸亏江苏巡抚庄有恭的幕僚见多识广,道出来历。于是,两江总督尹继善和江苏巡抚庄有恭“会衔上疏”,讲出来龙去脉,乾隆皇帝才又谕令严禁商船携带倭钱;民间使用的,官为收买。至此,事情才算了结,现存世极少,价格昂贵。

Japan's "Kuan Yong Tong Bao" money has been circulating among Chinese people for many years. Until the early years of Qianlong's reign in the Qing Dynasty, it was only known by the government that it was suspected that the money was made privately, and that the "year" was also used, which was tantamount to rebellion. Therefore, Emperor Qianlong ordered the governors and governors of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian to open furnaces for sale. Fortunately, the staff of governor Zhuang Yougong of Jiangsu Province is well-informed and knows the origin. Therefore, Yin Jishan, governor of the two rivers, and Yu Gong, governor of Jiangsu Province, had a "sparse rank" to talk about the dragon's pulse, and Emperor Qianlong ordered that commercial ships should not carry Japanese money; those used by the people were bribed by the officials. At this point, the matter is over. There are very few and the price is expensive.

此枚宽永通宝是候先生家传的珍品,该枚钱币,正面圆形方孔的铜币,其形状外发天,内地法,取义精宏。观其图,造型圆润端庄,字迹清晰深俊,包浆浑厚温润,整体字迹规范,细腻,有极高的艺术欣赏价值和意义,宽永对于整个清朝钱币的规范化发展有着重大的历史意义,同时还奠定了清朝此后一百八十余年的钱文风格是难得一见之收藏佳品。

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